Browse the most current issue of Design World and back issues in an easy to use high quality format. A total of 37 dampers were constructed, of 7 different types. The second benefit of dampers is that most of them would be beneath or within the structure and therefore generally hidden from public view. The metal bellows and other moving parts were constructed from stainless steel for corrosion resistance. The Millennium Bridge was retrofitted with an additional 89 dampers to reduce the wobble to a safe level. • 700-ton steel/aluminum The most direct application to the problem used supplemental viscous damping devices to elevate total structural damping levels to the 20% critical range, compared to approximately 0.5% critical damping for the as-built structure. This included 37 energy dissipating dampers to control the horizontal movement and 52 inertial dampers to control the If you . The modifications involved the installation of a series of dampers designed to reduce the movement of the bridge to acceptable levels. https://ja.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=ミレニアム・ブリッジ_(ロンドン)&oldid=80726445. Damping was eventually chosen as the preferred solution. All dampers were fabricated and delivered to the bridge site in 2001, and testing of the structure with groups of pedestrians began in January 2002. You consent to our cookies if you continue to use this website. Detail of dampers added to Millennium Bridge to prevent wobble Piano mechanism - hammers, felts, action, dampers of Steinway upright piano, 1909 Internal dampers of a piano Dynamite Blasting under Water. Adapting this basic design to the Millennium Bridge involved simply scaling the small satellite dampers to the required size range. As the damper moves, the two bellows alternately extend and retract by flexure of the individual bellows segments. What was unique about the Millennium Bridge was that resonance was occurring without any expected forced motion or marching. Dampers on the Millennium Bridge in London. Its position is between Southwark Bridge (downstream) and Blackfriars Railway Bridge (upstream). Masses of people walking up and down stairs at once, or great numbers of people stomping in unison, can cause serious problems in large structures like stadiums if those structures lack damping measures. The material on this site may not be reproduced, distributed, transmitted, cached or otherwise used, except with the prior written permission of WTWH Media. I believe that 109 and 2 x 109; should be 2E109 cycles. Metal bellows dampers from Taylor Devices are designed for low displacements and offer an infinite lifespan. Since the seal element elastically flexes rather than slides, seal hysteresis is nearly zero. The London Millennium Footbridge has an unusual low-slung suspension design, supported by steel cables anchored to piers on the opposite river banks. The London Millennium Bridge had this happen back in 2000, (check out the video below); after this incident dampers were added to the bridge. Just before the Millennium Bridge in London was re-opened,18 months after it closed due to excessive wobbling. Dampers are used in bridges and buildings around the world, especially in areas prone to earthquakes. Ideally, the damper should be maintenance free for the entire life cycle. Nearly 100,000 people used it in its first day of operation. attaching additional dampers to the structure. This type of seal does not slide, but rather flexes without hysteresis as the damper moves. As this University of Cambridge article on the design states, "as a result [of the added 37 linear viscous dampers and over 50 tuned mass vibration absorbers] this bridge is now probably the most complex passively-damped structure in the world. It is owned and maintained by Bridge House Estates, a charitable trust overseen by the City of London Corporation. The white disk is not part of the damper. The lateral damping for the Millennium Bridge is provided primarily by fluid viscous dampers. (upstream). 座標: 北緯51度30分37秒 西経0度05分54秒 / 北緯51.510173度 西経0.098438639度 / 51.510173; -0.098438639, ロンドン・ミレニアム歩道橋(London Millennium Footbridge)はミレニアム橋の愛称で親しまれている、ロンドンのテムズ川にかかる歩道橋。2000年6月に完成した。, 歩道橋はイギリスのミレニアムプロジェクト(2000年記念事業)[注 1]のひとつとして1996年にサザーク議会によるコンペの結果、アラップ、フォスター・アンド・パートナーズ、アンソニー・カロによる設計案が当選した。, 建設は1998年後半に起工、歩道橋部分は1999年4月28日に着工した[1]。建設費は1820万ポンドで、ミレニアム委員会とロンドン信託により支払った[2]。2000年6月10日に開通したものの大きな横揺れの発生により2日後に閉鎖、対策工事を経て2002年2月22日に再開通となった。, 同歩道橋はサザーク橋(下流)とブラックフライアーズ鉄道橋(上流)との間に位置しており、南側には、グローブ座、バンク・サイド・ギャラリー、テート・モダン、北側にはセント・ポール大聖堂がある。最寄りのロンドン地下鉄の駅は、マンション・ハウス駅である。, 2000年6月10日の開通当日は、橋に隣接するテート・モダンの人気も手伝い大勢の歩行者が訪れた。しかし、人々が橋を歩き始めると、橋は小刻みに大きな横揺れを始めた。開通日の午後以降は通行人数を制限する対応がとられたが、6月12日に対策工事を行うため一時閉鎖となった。, この橋は幅の狭い吊り橋であり、多少の揺れは予測されていた。また開通日は風の強い日だった。しかし、これらを勘案しても実際に生じた揺れは想定を上回る大きなものだった。調査の結果、次のような原因で揺れが生じたことが判明した。まず、人間は人混みを歩くときに他人との衝突を避けるために無意識に他人の歩調に合わせる心理があり、歩行による荷重は分散せずに周期的なものとなった。そして橋の固有振動周期が荷重の周期に近かったため、共振により揺れ始めた。さらに、ひとたび橋が揺れ始めると、多くの歩行者が揺れに対応しようとして橋の振動に歩調を合わせるようになり、ますます橋の揺れが激しくなった[3]。, 対策として、橋の振動数を制御して共振を起こりにくくするためにダンパーを追加する工事を行った[3]。補修工事には500万ポンドを要し[3]、2002年2月22日に再開通した。, Millennium Commission(千年紀組織委員会)が主導して多くの記念イベントの開催や記念建造物が造られている。事業費用の一部はナショナル・ロッタリー(, Life: The Observer Magazine - A celebration of 500 years of British Art - 19th March 2000, Brooklyn Bridge: lateral S-shaped vibration = pedestrian oscillations or "sway". Taylor Devices, a manufacturer of damping products, proposed a unique solution, a damper that was previously used exclusively by NASA and other U.S. Government agencies for space-based optical systems. To assure a high resolution output, all damper attachment clevises were fabricated with fitted spherical bearings and fitted mounting pins, such that zero net end play existed in the attachment brackets. The bridge is an unusually shallow stressed cable suspension bridge, specifically designed to provide… Site Map | Privacy Policy | RSS. We use cookies to personalize content and ads, to provide social media features and to analyze our traffic. A total of 37 viscous dampers are to be installed, the majority of which are to be situated beneath the bridge deck, on top of the transverse arms, every 16 m. Each end of the viscous damper is connected to the apex of a steel V-brace, known as a chevron. The majority of cycles would take place at low amplitude, but the total number of cycles required by the owner was based on a 50 year bridge life. Damper frequency response requirements were defined as D.C.B2 Hz with a high fidelity output over this entire bandwidth. In the case of London’s Millennium Bridge, both these conditions applied. This equates to more than 109 cycles of life, far in excess of normal values for any sort of conventional damping device. These high interferences in turn generate high seal friction, accentuating the “stick-slip” motion. The Millennium Footbridge was ope ned to the public on June 10, 2000 B the first new bridge across the River Thames in historic London in more than a century. Millennium bridge by Foster + Partners The Millennium bridge by Foster + Partners springs from a creative collaboration between architecture, art and engineering. But a mere two days later, it was ordered closed due to hazardous deck motions. We also share information about your use of our site with our social media, advertising and analytics partners who may combine it with other information that you’ve provided to them or that they’ve collected from your use of their services. When opened in 2000, it was found that low-frequency lateral vibrations were excited by pedestrians. Millennium Bridge Facts: • Pedestrian bridge, 1090 ft. length, crosses the Thames River in downtown London, England. The white disk is not part of the damper. The volume displaced by the compressing bellows passes through the crossover ports to the extending bellows at the opposite end of the damper. These previous applications had similar requirements for long life and high resolution at low amplitudes, but required relatively low damper forces from small, lightweight design envelopes. The most unique element of this design is a frictionless seal made from a welded metal bellows. The Millennium Bridge, officially known as the London Millennium Footbridge, is a steel suspension bridge for pedestrians crossing the River Thames in London, England, linking Bankside with the City.It is located between Southwark Bridge (downstream) and Blackfriars Railway Bridge (upstream). The dampers must continuously cycle at an average frequency of 0.8 Hz. The Millennium Bridge is a footbridge across the River Thames in London. Several major design issues for the dampers were noted by the bridge design team, and all of these needed to be satisfied before added damping could be considered as a viable solution. The tests proved to be anticlimactic—the bridge behavior being generally described as “rock solid” by the crowd. All parts, including the metal bellows, were designed with low stress levels to provide an endurance life in excess of 2 x 109 cycles. Seemingly random pedestrian footfalls were causing resonance of the bridge deck, with lateral accelerations measuring up to 0.25 g. The phenomena of forced harmonic excitation of bridge structures is well understood, and has been well documented by many sources. Firmly positioned in the 'A list' of London attractions, the Millennium Bridge is a 330m steel bridge linking the City of London at St. Paul's Cathedral with the Tate Modern Gallery at Bankside. Testing consisted of well-regulated crossings on the bridge by the entire crowd at different walking speeds. In 2001, Taylor Devices Inc. developed special Viscous Dampers for use on the Millennium Bridge in London, England. These dampers were specified and These dampers were specified and designed to be used for mitigating the dynamic response of the bridge due to pedestrian After extensive review of available video footage during the period the bridge was open, a series of tests identified a unique biodynamic feedback phenomena, “synchronous lateral footfall,” which resulted in seemingly random walking motions becoming synchronized over time among members of an unrelated group of people on the bridge. The bridge remained closed for almost two years while dampers were installed. Adapting this basic design to the Millennium Bridge involved simply scaling the small satellite dampers to the required size range. The project is located in City of London and Southwark, London, England, United Kingdom. All Rights Reserved. Configuration Management: Configuration Integrity IS A Core Driver for Business Success, Create your perfect machine with Advanced Engineering, How a ME/EE turned passion for design into his own bike company, Everyone Can Save on Cable Costs. When the Millennium Footbridge opened to the public on June 10, 2000, it was the first new bridge across the River Thames in historic London in more than a century. Peak measured accelerations reduced from 0.25 g undamped to 0.006 g damped. It is a steel suspension bridge which links Bankside with the City. After just three days the bridge's operators had to close the 320-metre long structure, which crosses the River Thames between St Paul's Cathedral and the Tate Modern. It is the newest bridge across the Thames. This requirement became even more difficult when taken in context with the extremely long cyclic life; conventional hydraulic practice is to use seals with heavy interference for long life under dynamic cycling. ミレニアム・ブリッジの閉鎖中尾政之、失敗知識データベース Millennium Bridge - Structurae Arup's Millennium Bridge site A PDF paper from Arup, discussing the engineering and resonance of the bridge. No observable biodynamic feedback occurred. Millennium Bridge was London’s first new pedestrian bridge for over a century. The Millennium Bridge has a uniquely thin profile To reduce the amplitude of these swaying oscillations, modifications were made in two ways. • 12 ft wide suspension deck with no support towers, uses lateral cables for support. The Millennium Bridge is a footbridge across the River Thames in London.It is a steel suspension bridge which links Bankside with the City.Its position is between Southwark Bridge (downstream) and Blackfriars Railway Bridge (upstream). On June 12, 2000, the Millennium … Top global problem solving EE forum covering Microcontrollers, DSP, Networking, Analog and Digital Design, RF, Power Electronics, PCB Routing and much more, The Engineering Exchange is a global educational networking community for engineers.Connect, share, and learn today », Copyright © 2021 WTWH Media, LLC. These dampers were specified and designed to be used for mitigating the dynamic response of the bridge due to pedestrian traffic. X0 = Zero frequency deflection of the spring-mass system under the action of a steady force Contact us today for more information. Because hydrodynamic bushings are used, no sliding contact with the piston rod occurs, assuring frictionless performance. London Millennium bridge was modelled in this thesis in order to show the effect of tuned mass damper. www.taylordevices.com. Clip, share and download with the leading design engineering magazine today. The dampers are located outdoors, over a brackish waterway with tidal flows. This would create a direct link between the north and south side of the river, and encourage the revival of a long-neglected area of London. It consists of 3 separate parts, one being 81 meters (266 feet) long, another being 144 meters (472 feet), and the final part being 108 meters (354 feet) long. Two metal bellows seals are used to seal fluid in the damper. More importantly to the engineering team, the damped bridge structure performed superbly: Taylor Devices Inc. In February 2001, the Millennium Bridge Trust announced that it had raised the 5 million needed to carry out the recommended modifications to the bridge and the remedial work started in May 2001. Thus, if a simple first order system with 0.5% critical damping is excited by forced resonance, the magnification factor is: If damping in the system is elevated to 20% critical, then the magnification substantially reduces to: The damping devices used on the bridge resulted in five major design issues, some of which are unique to this particular structure. The most promising were: Stiffening the bridge, limiting the allowable number of people allowed on the bridge, active control, or supplemental passive damping. Here’s How, How and Why You Should Use a Wave Spring for Bearing Preload. The Millennium Bridge reopened in 2002 after engineers fitted it with 91 dampers to absorb both lateral and vertical oscillations. Dampers reduced the dynamic response by at least 40 to 1 for all modes. All parts, including the metal bellows, were designed with low stress levels to provide an endurance life in excess of 2 x 109 cycles. The Millennium Bridge has reopened to the public, after a £5m repair programme. δ = Critical damping factor, = By definition, the magnification factor of the resonant response. Developed with sculptor Anthony Caro and engineers Arup, the commission resulted from an international competition. Several distinct designs of dampers were required, each of which had different output forces, deflections, component equations, and envelope dimensions. For a simple spring-mass-damper system, amplitude under steady-state forced resonance is: where X = Resonant amplitude The design was chosen through open competition and was won by Foster & Partners and Sir Anthony Caro with Arup. Millennium Bridge is a suspension bridge, pedestrian bridge (footbridge) and steel bridge that was built from 1996 until 2000. The design life was such that all major operating elements of the dampers needed to be constructed from inherently corrosion resistant metals that would not degrade over time. Millennium Bridge The design of a new pedestrian bridge across the River Thames, between Bankside and St Pauls. (upstream). The operators, the Millennium Bridge Trust, Southwark council and the Corporation of London, said the move represented "a significant step towards the … Nearly 100,000 people used the new bridge in its first day of opera tion. A Cambridge University Engineering Department account of the Millennium Bridge problem. The bridge opened on 10 June 2000. The £18.2m bridge swayed under the weight of thousands of pedestrians when it first opened in June 2000. How big is the Millennium Bridge? The London Millennium Footbridge across the River Thames, for example, opened with great fanfare in 2000, only to close within days after large crowds found the bridge rocking unnervingly as they walked. The design concept was based on the premise that added damping would reduce resonant deflections to a suitably low level. the Millennium Bridge. Millennium Bridge cables / Source 6. The modifications cost about $8.9 million. The damper response must have low hysteretic content to avoid pedestrians sensing the classical “stick-slip” motion of a conventional sliding contact fluid seal, with the resultant perception of instability in the bridge structure. The project team evaluated numerous concepts that would reduce or eliminate the feedback response. This issue was compounded by the fact that due to wind, thermal, and static loadings, total damper deflections of up to plus or minus 275 mm were required. While this is occurring, damping forces are produced by orifices in the damping head, and the pressures generated are kept isolated from the metal bellows by high restriction hydrodynamic labyrinth bushings. DAMPER DESIGN The damper must respond to tiny deflections as low as 0.025 mm with high resolution, otherwise the suppression of feedback would not be possible until the bridge was already well into resonance. People-excited lateral bridge vibration is likely to occur for pedestrian bridges which have low natural frequencies of swaying movement (less than 3 Hz) and for which the lateral modes have light damping. Millennium Bridge in London, United Kingdom. The bridge has a total length of 325 meters (1,066 feet) and because it’s a pedestrian bridge, it’s only about 4 meters (13 feet) wide. The Millennium Bridge, officially known as the London Millennium Footbridge, is a steel suspension bridge for pedestrians crossing the River Thames in London, linking Bankside with the City of London. For a while, some even regretted that the 70-millimetre (2.8-inch) sideways sway was quickly fixed with the invisible application of shock absorbers and tuned mass dampers. 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