At approximately 3 Gyr, twice the present-day heat would have been produced, increasing the rates of mantle convection and plate tectonics, and allowing the production of uncommon igneous rocks such as komatiites that are rarely formed today. "The equatorial diameter is c.7,926 mi (12,760 km) and the polar diameter 7,900 mi (12,720 km)" 12,760 km. As an example, the distance between the planet Mercury and Earth can range from 77 million km at the closest point, to as far as 222 million km at the farthest. [82] Due to the increased luminosity, Earth's mean tempearture may reach 100 °C (212 °F) in 1.5 billion years, and all ocean water will evaporate and be lost to space within an estimated 1.6 to 3 billion years. [255] The standard astronomical symbol of Earth consists of a cross circumscribed by a circle, ,[256] representing the four corners of the world. [177][178] The tiny near-Earth asteroid 2006 RH120 makes close approaches to the Earth–Moon system roughly every twenty years. Earth's axis of rotation is tilted with respect to its orbital plane, producing seasons on Earth. The development of agriculture, and then civilization, led to humans having an influence on Earth and the nature and quantity of other life forms that continues to this day. This is the diameter of the Earth measured from one side of the Earth, passing through the center. The diameter of the Sun is thus 109 times as great as the Earth's diameter. This effect is much less significant than the total energy change due to the axial tilt, and most of the excess energy is absorbed by the higher proportion of water in the Southern Hemisphere. [163][164] The natural satellites of other planets are also referred to as "moons", after Earth's. The crust is separated from the mantle by the Mohorovičić discontinuity. [172][173], Viewed from Earth, the Moon is just far enough away to have almost the same apparent-sized disk as the Sun. Our home planet Earth is the fifth largest of the eight planets and measures in at 12,756 km in diameter. As a result, the latest measurements indicate that the Earth has an equatorial diameter of 12,756 km (7926 mi), and a polar diameter of 12713.6 km … Solar System → Local Interstellar Cloud → Local Bubble → Gould Belt → Orion Arm → Milky Way → Milky Way subgroup → Local Group → Local Sheet → Virgo Supercluster → Laniakea Supercluster → Observable universe → UniverseEach arrow (→) may be read as "within" or "part of". [258][259][260] Images of Earth taken from space, particularly during the Apollo program, have been credited with altering the way that people viewed the planet that they lived on, emphasising its beauty, uniqueness and apparent fragility. Earth is classified as the largest of the terrestrial planets based on its circumference and diameter as well. [83][84], The Sun will evolve to become a red giant in about 5 billion years. [5] The height of the troposphere varies with latitude, ranging between 8 km (5 mi) at the poles to 17 km (11 mi) at the equator, with some variation resulting from weather and seasonal factors. Earth is the densest planet in the Solar System and the largest and most massive of the four rocky planets. The most recent reversal occurred approximately 700,000 years ago. The oldest oceanic crust is located in the Western Pacific and is estimated to be 200 Ma old. At the same time, the upwelling of mantle material at divergent boundaries creates mid-ocean ridges. [80][81] The lack of vegetation will result in the loss of oxygen in the atmosphere, making animal life impossible. Please refresh the page and try again. Its mass is 4.01 × 10 24 kg. The mass of the moon is 1.23% of the mass of the Earth, or about 1/80th. [187], The average salinity of Earth's oceans is about 35 grams of salt per kilogram of sea water (3.5% salt). [161][n 12] Because the Southern Hemisphere is tilted toward the Sun at about the same time that Earth reaches the closest approach to the Sun, the Southern Hemisphere receives slightly more energy from the Sun than does the northern over the course of a year. Using those measurements, the equatorial circumference of Earth is about 24,901 miles (40,075 km). [248] These deposits are used by humans both for energy production and as feedstock for chemical production. Circumference of the Earth at Equator is 40,075 km and at the poles 40,024 km. Radiation at perihelion relative to the surface over many millions of years circumference... Stable over long periods of time by 4.54±0.04 Ga the primordial Earth had.! System formed and evolved with the Sun and the Moon on Earth acceleration that is used for,... 234 ] Partly due to precession and other landforms 40 ] it hit Earth with a horseshoe orbit and.... 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